The aim of the research is to show the existence of implicit gender discrimination in the hidden curriculum in primary education that is reflected in the interaction between the teachers and the pupils in the classes taught in Serbian (with clear grammar gender markers) and Hungarian (which does not recognize the gender categories).

The theoretical framework is based on the theory of multiple identities in gender studies (Batler 2010 [1990], 2001 [1993]) and “doing gender” (West, Zimmerman 1987), where discourse analysis is considered to be the most suitable tool for investigation of this topic.

The paper starts from the hypothesis that the implicit gender-based discrimination is part of the hidden classroom discourse and the explicit language used by teachers in the classroom setting.

The corpus consists of: 1.a classroom talk (the fine transcript of two video and audio recordings of mother tongue lessons in Serbian and Hungarian classes made in the eighth grade in two primary schools in Subotica), 2. texts taken from the curricula and the eighth grade textbooks used in classes in Serbian (taught either as a mother tongue or a second language) and Hungarian (taught as mother tongue); 3. nonverbal and verbal behaviour of pupils during the school events (two video recordings made during “The School Day” in a bilingual primary school where

teaching is conducted in both Serbian and Hungarian).

The results of the empirical investigation are as follows: 1. classes in both classrooms were structured and led by teachers – classroom interaction time was mostly taken by teachers. Also, certain differences have been identified concerning the teacher-pupil discourse strategies in terms of addressing pupils, interruptions and overlaps; 2. the gender sensitive analysis of curricula and textbooks has shown that gender equality principle is not their integral part. Instead, textbooks reflect gender bias and discrimination by gender/sex; 3. the analysis of the types and content of school events has shown that although these events were aimed at developing multiculturalism, the dialogue between cultures was missing. Therefore, the hypothesis has been confirmed.

It has been concluded that classroom interaction influences the formation of gender, linguistic and cultural identities of both female and male pupils. Hence, bilingual schools should pay attention to class structure, devising specific teaching contents, and creating spoken and written materials which would help to develop the aforementioned values and types of behaviour. The general recommendation is that educational policy makers as well as national curriculum and textbook authors should make effort to raise awareness about the importance of immediate classroom interaction.

Margareta, Bašaragin (2019). Gender, Culture and Classroom Discourse [Rod, kultura i idskurs razgovora u razredu]. Novi Sad: Fondacija akademika Bogumila Hrabaka za publikovanje doktorskih disertacija.

Ph.D. Margareta Bašaragin